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Figs are an outstanding fruit tree for Florida, but a rootstock that’s resistant to nematodes could help them be much more successful here and in other subtropical and tropical regions.
Figs are a great fruit that’s mostly well-adapted to the south-eastern US, but they’ve got a major problem limiting them in our area: root-knot nematodes. Many of our soils are full of these microscopic parasitic worms that burrow into the roots of fig trees, sucking sap and impairing the roots’ ability to pull water and nutrients from the soil. In many cases a fig tree planted out here will just struggle along, making little growth and producing few or no figs, because of the constant damage to its roots from nematodes. This is also a significant problem in many other tropical and subtropical areas around the world.
Fortunately, there are over 800 species in the genus Ficus, and at least some of these fig relatives are resistant to nematodes, and some of those are graft-compatible with Ficus carica, the common edible fig. There has been some work done on this, but I’ve found that both the information and the plant species for root stocks are difficult to find.
I’ve compiled the reports I can find of what other people have done, and I’ve been doing some experimenting of my own. My goal is to find one or more species that grow extremely well in Florida, even in nematode-infested soil, and can be easily grafted to common fig, Ficus carica, with no incompatibility problems over the long term. For scions, I’ll use the fig varieties that are best adapted to growing and fruiting in our hot, humid climate. Since root-knot nematodes are a problem limiting fig cultivation in many tropical and subtropical areas around the world, an effective solution to this issue could have widespread applicability.
This is my first post on what I’ve learned. As I find out more, I’ll post updated information on this website.
Reports In The Literature
Much of what I can find in print and online about this subject seems to be people quoting each other. Of the two primary sources I can find, one is a
from the Florida State Horticultural Society, reporting on experiments successfully grafting figs onto two Ficus species as root stocks: Ficus glomerata, and an unidentified Ficus species from North Queensland, Australia.
The other is a
published in 1970 in which researchers grafted figs onto four different Ficus species: Ficus glomerata (which is a synonym for Ficus racemosa), Ficus cocculifolia, Ficus gnaphalocarpa, and Ficus palmata. Both of these studies seem to have primarily investigated graft compatibility, and only secondarily reported some evidence of nematode resistance in the root stocks.
From what I can find online, two of the species tested in the second study, Ficus cocculifolia and Ficus gnaphalocarpa, are now considered synonyms for Ficus sycomorus, which is the “sycamore tree” mentioned numerous times in the Bible. Ficus sycomorus is native to tropical and subtropical semi-arid areas of Africa and in the neighboring Middle East. (Ficus gnaphalocarpa is now classed as Ficus sycomorus, subspecies gnaphalocarpa, native to Madagascar).
So all the root stock species tested in these studies boil down to just three species: Ficus glomerata, Ficus sycamorus, and Ficus palmata. (This doesn’t count the unidentified Ficus from Australia — there are 45 Ficus species native to Australia, and I’d love to figure out which was the one from the 1925 report, but that might be a substantial project.)
First off, Ficus sycomorus: The 1970 study referenced above found two forms of this species that seemed promising as potential fig root stocks, and a
found that sap from the roots of Ficus sycomorus had a powerful nematocidal effect under laboratory conditions.
I don’t have this species in my collection yet. I’ve heard of people growing it in Florida, and I’d love to get a hold of it to test both nematode resistance, and graft-compatibility with common fig. Do you have Ficus sycomorus (especially subspecies gnaphalocarpa), and would you be willing to donate some cuttings to me? Leave a comment.
***Update: The clone I acquired labelled as Ficus glomerata (described below), turns out to be probably misidentified, and is probably actually Ficus sycomorus.
Next, Ficus palmata. I got a start of this one several years ago, and I was excited to experiment with it, because it seemed the most promising rootstock candidate: it was reportedly nematode-resistant, and being particularly closely related to common fig, I figured it should be fully graft compatible. Also, it can handle temperatures dipping a number of degrees below freezing, so there shouldn’t be the danger of a tropical rootstock freezing out from under a cold-hardy fig tree, killing the top.
This is the plant I got under the name Ficus palmata, which turned out to be highly sensitive to nematodes. ***Update: This might have been misidentified, and might actually be something other than Ficus palmata.
Unfortunately, I found that at least for the clone of Ficus palmata that I have, it’s turned out not to be nematode resistant — in fact, it seems perhaps even more susceptible to nematodes than Ficus carica. I planted out a number of ungrafted Ficus palmata plants in the ground in the spring of 2014, and was startled when most of them died over the summer of 2014. When I pulled up the corpses, the roots had the tell-tale swellings of severe nematode damage. I don’t know if there are multiple varieties of Ficus palmata, and perhaps some other types are resistant to this pest, or possibly the one I have is misidentified, but I can say that at least the clone I acquired under the name Ficus palmata is extremely sensitive to the kinds of nematodes in the soil here. I did graft a number of plants of this species with fig scions, and the grafts took well. But I don’t see a use for them in this area. (I gave plants of this type, both grafted with fig scions and un-grafted, to several people. If you got one of these, sorry!)
***Update: This clone, which I got as Ficus palmata, is likely something else. So my results probably don’t say anything about whether or not the true Ficus palmata is actually nematode resistant.
The next species is the one that’s had the most widespread sucessful use as a fig root stock: Ficus glomerata. I’ve got this species in my collection, and I’ve got experiments well under way with it. Years ago, on a visit to ECHO in Fort Myers, Florida, I got to see a mature fig tree in the ground which was grafted onto Ficus glomerata.
I took this pic in 1998 at ECHO in Ft Myers of a tree of common fig, Ficus carica, grafted onto nematode-resistant Ficus glomerata rootstock. Sprouts at base are from the rootstock species, Ficus glomerata. ***Update: It turns out this rootstock species is probably actually Ficus sycomorus. I am working to confirm the identity.
Ficus glomerata apparently worked well at ECHO, and so it seems to be a good fig root stock for southern Florida. Because it’s a tropical, special care must be taken in Central and North Florida to avoid the danger I mentioned above, of this frost-sensitive rootstock freezing out from under the frost-hardy fig tree grafted onto it. The tree would have to be grafted low, and the graft union covered with soil, to avoid this danger.
Several years ago, I tried this here in North Florida on a very small scale, planting out a single fig tree grafted onto Ficus glomerata. It grew well for two years, but had a problem with breaking winter dormancy too early, which killed it entirely in its second winter when a hard freeze hit the plant while it was pushing out new tender growth.
I don’t know how much the early breaking of dormancy was related to the root stock, or the fig variety (‘LSU Scott’s Black’, I think), or maybe the weather those two years was particularly erratic. It does seem reasonable that a tree grafted onto tropical root stock might be more inclined to push growth during winter warm spells than a tree on rootstock from an area that experiences winter freezes. If it turns out that this is a general problem on Ficus glomerata as root stock, one way around it might be to use fig varieties that are naturally late to break dormancy. I have noticed considerable variation on when different fig varieties break dormancy in spring.
A friend in Gainesville, Florida planted out another fig tree (of uncertain variety) grafted onto Ficus glomerata, and it grew and fruited well, but was subsequently removed for reasons unrelated to the tree’s performance.
I can confirm that the Ficus glomerata clone I have does indeed appear nematode-resistant: I’ve planted out non-grafted plants of Ficus glomerata in soil I knew to be nematode-infested, including right next to the Ficus palmata plants that got killed by the microscopic worms. The Ficus glomerata plants have thrived, and the roots I pulled and examined showed no sign of nematode damage.
I am propagating a number of plants of this species to try as a fig root stock on a much larger scale, with several different varieties of figs as scions, to see how the combination performs in this area. And I’ll try passing them to people further south in the state, to see how it does for them.
***Update: This clone, which I got labelled as Ficus glomerata, is probably actually Ficus sycomorus. I’m working to to figure out its true identity. Whatever species it is, it is graft-compatible with Ficus carica, appears to be nematode-resistant, and is very frost-sensitive, getting killed back at temperatures right around the freezing point.
Another species I want to try is kind of a wild-card. Ficus pumila is a type of Ficus with a very different growth habit than the ones mentioned so far: it grows as a vine. It has two distinct growth forms, a juvenile form and a mature form. In its juvenile form, it has tiny creeping viney stems, and numerous small leaves, with a growth habit clinging to walls or tree trunks. People sometimes use it as an ornamental, for this the ivy-like effect it gives to buildings or statues. But if the vines are not carefully trimmed back, they eventually transform into the mature phase of the plant, which has much fatter twigs and larger leaves, and reaches out from the surface it’s growing on, with stems dangling several feet out and down.
In the juvenile form of Ficus pumila, the stems are much too thin to graft onto, but the mature form has much fatter stems, fat enough to take a fig graft. Once a planting of Ficus pumila has started producing mature growth, it’s possible to root cuttings of this wood, which tends to retain this mature growth habit even once rooted. It should then be possible to try grafting fig scions onto the rooted cuttings.
Years ago, I asked a fig expert what he thought of this idea, and he said he knew of two different people who had done it successfully, both using cleft grafts. I don’t know what became of their trees.
Ficus pumila grows rampantly in this area, so I am assuming it is nematode resistant.
As of this writing (December 2015), I’ve got a number of rooted cuttings of mature-phase Ficus pumila. They’re still small, but as they grow large enough I’ll try grafting fig scions onto them, and plant them out in nematode-infested areas.
A major concern is that I don’t know how fat the trunk of a fig grafted onto Ficus pumila rootstock could get. Even on the mature phase of this species, the stems don’t seem to get thicker than maybe a third of an inch in diameter. They’d have to be capable of getting a lot fatter than that to support a fig tree. Maybe this would turn out to be a super-dwarfing root stock? I’ll let you know how it turns out.
Well, that’s the status of my knowledge and experiments so far on the subject of nematode-resistant root stocks for figs. I’ll write more updates as my work progresses, and as I learn more of what others have done. Hopefully I’ll hear from other people who have experimented with this topic and can shed more light on this subject. If have any information to add, please comment.
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There are Ficus trees of an ornamental species growing along US 301 just north of sun city center, fla. Very vigorous and promising as a rootstock.
Hi Paul, thanks for stopping in and commenting.
Please try rooting some cuttings from those plants and putting fig scions on them! Apparently many Ficus species are not graft-compatible with Ficus carica. The 1925 report I linked to in the article says the experiment station tested 18 different Ficus species, and 16 of those showed partial or complete incompatibility, or turned out to be nematode sensitive. Fortunately, it’s so easy to take Ficus cuttings, and there are so many Ficus species around, this is an area where we backyard tinkerers can make some real progress in figuring this out.
It’s a testament to the paucity of information about this subject that, as of early January, this article now comes up number one in the search results when I type “fig graft nematode” into Google, Duckduckgo, and Bing.
I just ran across another bit of relevant information: the World Agroforestry Centre’s fact sheet on Ficus sycomorus states that the species is susceptible to nematodes, and should not be planted in nematode-infested soil. Since other publications definitely state that Ficus sycamorus is resistant to nematodes, I don’t know if the fact sheet is mistaken, or if different varieties of the species differ in nematode sensitivity, or perhaps the species is resistant to some kinds of nematodes but sensitive to others. I’ll get starts of the species, preferably from different parts of its wide range, and test them in my worst nematode-infested soil, and I’ll report on this website how they do. I don’t have any starts of it yet, so if you have access to Ficus sycomorus and want to mail me some cuttings, please comment!
I am appreciative of your work on this issue.
I have not had the opportunity to test rootstocks myself.
You are correct that there is not much solid research on the topic.
Folks seem to mention what they read somewhere else but have not conducted new experiments.
I’ve ended up with ficus palmata, zidi, LSU purple, and a celeste – these are ones that have been mentioned before in papers about the subject.
You did not mention Zidi and LSU Purple in your initial report.
Do you have these varieties?
Do you have any other information about their purported resistance?
Contact me if you can via email.
Thanks again for your efforts on this issue.
How long does it take to grow Ficus glomerata from seed to grafting size?
Hi Helike13, sorry for the delay in getting back to you. I start Ficus glomerata from cuttings, rather than seed. Under ideal conditions, I’ll take cuttings, they’ll be rooted in about two months, then I’ll pot them up into one-gallon containers, and probably it’s about another four months before they’re big enough to graft onto. So that’s about a six-month process.
There is a Ficus racemosa tree in my village which is reported to be 80+ years old. Since it is too high to take cuttings (must have a firefighter’s ladder to do so) I decided to collect some dropped fruit and grow them from seed when I had written my previous comment. This was about six months ago. Now they are about 7′ tall.
You told you were successful to grow one grafted tree for 2 years. Do you have pics from your F. racemosa rootstock and your grafted tree?
Later I also show pictures.
I know this is a little old by now though.
I grow figs in Florida as well and find that most do ok, but they could be much healthier without the nematode problems.
Your idea to try and graft to another rootstock is a good one.
Regarding the Palmata – I wonder if what you really got was Palmata, because aren’t Palmata leaves supposed to be single lobed?
Have you had any luck with Ficus glomerata?
Hi Mike, thanks for commenting! Yeah, I’m not sure if what I got was really Ficus palmata. I need to look up in an authoritative source the exact characteristics of that species, and see if I can find the “real” one, and test it for nematode resistance.
As far as the Ficus glomerata I mentioned, I’ve continued to experiment with that – I haven’t gotten any fig trees grafted on that rootstock into the ground yet, but a friend of mine did, and that fig tree looks super healthy and vigorous, and is loaded with figs.
But — I got that rootstock species from ECHO as Ficus glomerata, and I just heard two days ago from a friend who talked to someone who says he’s the one who originally gave that species to ECHO, and he says that it’s actually Ficus sycomorus. So I’ve got some sorting out to do, to figure out exactly what I have! (Clearly I need to be more diligent about confirming the identify of species I acquire…) Once I get it figured out, I’ll post another update. Thanks again for reading and commenting.
I would be interested in trading some ficus rootstock for some common fig cuttings.
I have some good varieties.
I would to try some in-ground rootstock that can escape the nematode problems.
Send me an email if you are interested.
Hi Florida Fruit Geek!
Sorry for the late comment – I’m just curious, but have you heard of anyone attempting grafting F. carica onto a F. religiosa rootstock?
I can’t find any evidence that anyone’s even tried it.
Hi Karen, thanks for commenting! Nope, I’ve never heard of anyone trying that combo. Next time I’m in South Florida and I have access to a Ficus religiosa tree, I’ll get cuttings to try it. And if you try it, let me know how it goes.
Hi Jason here and I am a new fig grower here in South Florida.
Purchased a brown turkey fig from a local nursery and received my introduction into the rootknot nematode dilemma.
I applied a water / neem oil mix, twice,
directly onto the roots in 6 month intervals and the roots have begun flushing out new unaffected growth. I will apply a third application later this year and reinspect.
Wanted to replant in the ground but would love to graft onto a nematode resistant rootstock to ensure it’s safety as the neem oil applications would only be a temporary solution.
Have you discovered your nematode resistant rootstock yet?
Hi Jason, so far the rootstock that seems most promising for South Florida is the one I got that was labelled as Ficus glomerata, but which has turned out to be probably Ficus sycomorus. It does appear to be fully graft compatible with edible fig, and is nematode resistant. Here in North Florida, it possibly might cause problems with the scion not staying fully dormant during winter and getting hit by freezes with new tender growth. I’ve seen that happen at least once, but not other times, so I need to get a bunch more of them in the ground to fully test them (although in South Florida, that’s much less of an issue). I am doing more grafts now, and hopefully I’ll have grafted fig trees for sale within a year.
Thank you for the timely response. Good luck.
Any update on this?
Have you tried to get a true Palmata in order to verify its RKN resistance?
I have read folks saying that Palmata is RKN resistant, so I sure would like to try this.
I am in Tampa and I grow a lot of figs, so I am following your results.
Do you have any Ficus sycomorus rootstock for sale so I can do this experiment in my location?
Hi Mike – yes, I’m continuing this project. I’ll be putting up another post here in the next few weeks about progress I’ve made on finding nematode resistant fig rootstocks. I’m happy to share rootstock material. I’ll message you directly about what I have.
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